EPH - International Journal of Medical and Health Science (ISSN: 2456 - 6063) http://ephjournal.com/index.php/mhs en-US EPH - International Journal of Medical and Health Science (ISSN: 2456 - 6063) <ul> <li>All contributor(s) agree to transfer the copyright of this article to <strong>EPH Journal.</strong></li> <li><strong>EPH Journal</strong> will have all the rights to distribute, share, sell, modify this research article with proper reference of the contributors.&nbsp;</li> <li><strong>EPH Journal</strong> will have the right to edit or completely remove the published article on any misconduct happening.</li> </ul> An Evaluation of Basal Lactate in Athletes and Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus http://ephjournal.com/index.php/mhs/article/view/399 <p>Metabolic Dysfunction (MetD) is the co-occurrence of conditions including insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Decreased physical activities influence numerous pathological and clinical conditions such as MetD and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In some cases, type 2 diabetes mellitus follows or coexists with MetD, though not always. Lactate level indicates oxidative capacity which is reduced in MetD and type 2 diabetes mellitus as such it is hypothesized that lactate can be a useful diagnostic tool in the detection of these conditions. In this study 88 persons which include athletes in training, and persons who did not exercise regularly were selected and screened for MetD and diabetes mellitus using the NCEP ATP iii for MetD and HbA1c and fasting glucose for diabetes mellitus. They were then categorized into groups: male athlete (MA), female athlete (FA), male diabetes patients (MD), female diabetes patients (FD), Female control (FC), male control (MC) and participants with metabolic syndrome(MetD). Basal lactate was assessed for all categories. Basal lactate was significantly higher (P&lt;0.05) in persons with MetD and diabetes mellitus for both males and females. Lactate levels changed significantly as glucose levels exceeded 6 mmol/L. Fasting blood glucose concentration below 6 mmol/L was not associated with any significant change in lactate concentration. Changes in mean blood lactate are consistent with changes in mean HbA1c across the groups. Lactate can be used as a parameter in diagnosing MetD and as a tool to monitor type 2 diabetes</p> Aldeam Facey Lowell Dilworth Rosemarie Wright-Pascoe Melissa Walker Rachael Irving ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2017-12-31 2017-12-31 3 12 01 21 Magnitude and Pattern of Hepatitis B Carriers in the General Population at a Tertiary Care Hospital. http://ephjournal.com/index.php/mhs/article/view/300 <p>Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a parenterally transmitted virus that has assumed great clinical significance of late. The clinical presentation of HBV ranges from asymptomatic or unapparent infection to acute liver failure. The estimation of the number of carriers in most studies is mostly done by the detection of the HBsAg in individuals, but the detection of the presence of the HBeAg and anti-HBe has not yet gained mainstream attention. This study was conducted to find the Hepatitis B carrier rate at a tertiary care hospital in Bangalore. The samples collected were tested for HBsAg using chemiluminescence assay and positive samples were further tested for HBeAg using radioimmunoassay. Samples were then classified and analyzed statistically. It was seen that 1.41% of individuals are carriers of HBsAg and among them, 6.89% are positive for HBeAg.</p> Dr Giridhara Upadhyaya P M Dr Supriya Christopher Ramya Jayasimha ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2017-12-31 2017-12-31 3 12 22 36 A Study on Knowledge of the Danger Signs of Pregnancy in Maasai Women in Kiekonyokie Sub Location Kajiado of County in Kenya http://ephjournal.com/index.php/mhs/article/view/376 <p>Maternal health is one of the eight Millennium Development Goals, is central to poverty reduction and overall development, and it increased international attention for monitoring progress on maternal health and improving access to skilled attendants at deliveries.</p> <p>In Kenya, 44 percent of births are delivered under the supervision of a health professional, mainly a nurse or midwife. Traditional birth attendants continue to play a vital role in delivery, assisting with 28 percent of births. This research paper aimed to study in relation to the &nbsp;utilization of skilled delivery services, the knowledge of the danger signs of pregnancy in Maasai women, the study population belonging to a community of nomadic life style in North of Kajiado county in Kenya. The study design was a cross sectional descriptive study adopting both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The sample size was 264 women of reproductive age obtained by using formula given by Fisher et al. when the population is more than 10,000.The quantitative data has been analyzed using (SPSS) version 17.0 while the qualitative data was analyzed by summarizing of the themes. Results show &nbsp;that 7.6% of Maasai women consult &nbsp;their mother in law, husbands make most of the decisions &nbsp;40.2% on the place of delivery of the expectant mothers whereas as the relatives &nbsp;make the least decisions 5.7%. Preparation of the expectant mother for delivery did not have a statistical significant p-0.046.The traditional rite of passage practices had no statistical significance&nbsp;p -0.190. 72% of women &nbsp;could mention&nbsp; at least one correct danger sign for pregnancy out of the posssible four. 97.7% of the Maasai women take &nbsp;more than 1hour to reach to the nearest health facility and less than &nbsp;1% &nbsp;of them &nbsp;take &nbsp;less than 30minutes to reach to the health facility. &nbsp;</p> Dr. Nanduri Lakshmi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2017-12-31 2017-12-31 3 12 37 46