Chemical contaminations and microbial determinations of Avicennia marina (Forsk.)Vierh. in Red Sea habitat, Egypt
Contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals poses a major threat to Avicennia marina (Forsk.)Vierh. mangrove plants grown naturally at the Egyptian Red Sea Coast. Also, microbial determination in A. marina habitats is very essential. Samples of water, rhizosediment, sediment and plant parts (shoots & pneumatophores) were collected from three sites in the habitat of A. marina. These sites are: 17 km south of Safaga, Qulaan and Ras-Mohamed. Sediment contents of Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn, Cr and Cd in all sites were lower than sediment quality guidelines (SQG). No microbial pollution was detected in water samples. The average contents of detected hydrocarbons in plant tissues followed the sequence of: Dibutyl Phthalate (1.103) > Diethyl Phthalate (1.02) >Bis (2-Ethylhexyl) phthalate (0.89) > Pyrene (0.394) > Phenanthrene (0.149) > Isophorone (0.098) µg /Kg. In addition, the stimulatory effects of these plants roots to microbial activity in all areas were studied.
Abd-ElHadi, M. Z. (2008). “Evaluation of pollution rate by petroleum oil and its effect on mangrove communities along the Red Sea Coast, Egypt”. J. Agric. Sci. Mansoura Univ., 33 (1), 793-804.
Abohassan, R. A. (2013). “Heavy Metal Pollution in Avicennia marina Mangrove Systems on the Red Sea Coast of Saudi Arabia”. JKAU: Met., Env. & Arid Land Agric. Sci., 24(1), 35-53.
Alongi, D. M., (1988).“Bacterial productivity and microbial biomass in tropical mangrove sediments”.Microb. Ecol., 15: 59-79.
Alzahrani, D. A.; Selim, E. M. and El-Sherbiny, M. M. (2018).“Ecological assessment of heavy metals in the grey mangrove (Avicennia marina) and associated sediments along the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia”.Oceanologia, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.oceano.2018.04.002
Aneja, K. R. (1993). “Experiments in microbiology and plant pathology, Tissue culture and Mushroom cultivation”. WishwaPrakashan, New Delhi. 451.
APHA (1995)."Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater (20th ed.)". Washington, DC: American Public Health.
APHA (1998). "American Public Health Association, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater", APHA, WWA, Washington, DC.
Awad H. (1989). “Oil contamination in the red sea environment”. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 45: 235-242.
Bayen, S. (2012). “Occurrence, bioavailability and toxic effects of trace metals and organic contaminants in mangrove ecosystems. A review”. Environ. Internat., 48, 84-101.
Bills, E. F.; Christen, M.; Powell, M. and Thorn, G. (2004). “Saprobic soil fungi. In: Mueller, G., Bills, G.F., Foster, M.S, eds. Biodiversity of Fungi: inventory and monitoring methods”. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Academic Press: 271-302.
Binet, P.; Portal, J. M. and Leyval, C., (2000). “Dissipation of 3-6 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the rhizosphere of ryegrass”. Soil. Biol. Biochem., 32, 2011-2017.
Brown, E.J. and Braddock, J.F. (1990).“Sheen screen: a miniaturised most-probable-number method for the enumeration of oil-degrading micro-organisms”. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 56: 3895–3896.
Chen,Y.-M.; Gao, J.-b.; Yuan, Y.-Q.; Ma, J, and Yu ,S., (2016). “Relationship between heavy metal contents and clay mineral properties in surface sediments: Implications form metal pollution assessment”. Cont. Shelf Res. 124, 125–133.
Corgie, S. C.; Beguiristaine, T. and Leval, C. (2004). “Spatial distribution of bacterial communities and phenanthrene degradation in the rhizosphere of Loliumperenne. L”. Appl. Environ. Microbiol 70:3552-3557.
Dar, M. A. (2014). “Distribution patterns of some heavy metals in the surface sediment fractions at northern Safaga Bay, Red Sea, Egypt”. Arab. J. Geosci., 7, 55–67.
Das, N.and Chandran, P. (2011).“Review Article Microbial Degradation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminants: An Overview” Biotechnol. Res. Int., 1-13, doi:10.4061/2011/941810.
Defew, L. H.; Mair, J. M. and Guzman, H. M. (2005). “An assessment of metal contamination in mangrove sediments and leaves from punta Mala Bay, Pacific Panama”. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 50, 547-552.
El-Khouly A. A. and Khedr, A. A. (2007).“Zonation Pattern of Avicennia marina and Rhizophora mucronata along the Red Sea Coast, Egypt”. World Applied Sciences Journal 2 (4): 283-288.
El-Metwally, M. E.A.; Madkour, A. G.; Fouad, R. R.; Mohamedein, L. I.; NourEldine, H. A.; Dar, M. A. and El-Moselhy, K. M. (2017). “Assessment the Leachable Heavy Metals and Ecological Risk in the Surface Sediments inside the Red Sea Ports of Egypt”. IJMS, 7 (23), 214-228.
El-Shahawy, M. R. M. (2007).“Enhanced Aerobic biodegradation of some toxic hydrocarbon pollutants”. Ph. D Thesis Microbiology. Dept. Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University.
Essien, J. P.; Benson, N. U. and Sylvester P. Antai, S. P. (2008).“Application of correlation analysis in assessment of relationships between mineral hydrocarbon levels and hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria count in tropical mangrove estuarine sediments”. Scientific Research and Essay.3 (3), pp. 094-101
Fahmy, M. A.; Abdel Fattah, L. M.; Abdel-Halim, A. M.; Aly-Eldeen, M. A.; Abo-El-Khair, E. M.; Ahdy, H. H.; Hemeilly, A.; Abu El-Soud, A. and Shreadah, M. A. (2016). “Evaluation of the Quality for the Egyptian Red Sea Coastal Waters during 2011-2013”. J. Environ. Protec., 7, 1810-1834.
Freed, R. D. (1991): “MSTAT-C Directory crop”. Soil Science Dept., Michigan Univ., USA.
Gab-Alla, A. A.; Khafagi, I. K.; Morsy, W. M. and Fouda, M. M. (2010). “Ecology of Avicennia marina mangals along Gulf of Aqaba, South Sinai, Red Sea”. Egypt J. Aquat. Biol. & Fish., 14 (2), 79-93.
Gedamy, Y.R., A.M. El-Aassar and A.M. Abdel-Gawad, (2012).“Pollutants Detection in Water Resources at El Saff Area and Their Impact on Human Health, Giza Governorate, Egypt”. Int. J. of Envir., 1(1): 1-14.
Guitouni, M.; El Gammal, M. A. M. and Fita, N. A. (2016). “Accumulation of heavy metals in Mangroves (Avicennia marina) from Syhat and Safwa region, Tarut Bay Saudi Arabia”. IJAR, 4(7), 1811-1816.
Ibiebele D.D. and Braide S.A. (1987).“Oshika oil spill incident: Case study four years after the spill. The Petroleum Industry and the New Environment”. Proceedings of 1987 International Seminar. pp. 14-17.
Isawi, H. I. (2016). “Synthesis of nano enhanced Reverse Osmosis membrane for desalination of saline groundwater in Sharm El Sheikh, South Sinai, Egypt”. PhD Thesis, Chemistry department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University.
Jackson, M. L. (1963). “Soil chemical analysis”. Constable and Comp. Ltd., England.
Johnson, L.F., Curl, E.A., Bond, H.A and Friboury, H.A. (1956).“Methods for studying soil microflora plant disease relationships”. Burgers Publication Comp., Minnepolis, Minnesota. 4: 12-15.
Khalil, A. M.; El-Sheikh, H. H. and Sultan, M. H. (2013). “Distribution of fungi in mangrove soil of coastal areas at Nabq and Ras Mohammed Protectorates”. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci, 2(12), 264-274.
Kilmer, V. J. and Alexander, L.T. (1949). “Methods of making mechanical analysis of soils”. Soil Sci., 68:15-24.
Knopp, D.; Seifert, M.; Vaananen, V. and Niessner, R. (2000). “Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated water and soil samples by immunological and chromatographic methods”. Environ. Sci. Technol. 34: 2035-2041.
Luo, W.; Lu, Y.; Wang, T.; Hu, W.; Jiao, W.; Naile, J. E.; Khim, J. S. and Giesy, J. P. (2010). “Ecological risk assessment of arsenic and metals in sediments of coastal areas of northern Bohai and Yellow Seas, China”. Ambio 39:367–375.
Madkour, H. A. and Mohammed, A. W. (2008). “Nature and geochemistry of surface sediments of the mangrove environment along the Egyptian Red Sea coast”. Environ. Geol., 54, 257–267.
Mahalakshmi, M.; Srinivasan, M.; Murugan, M.; Balakrishnan, S and Devanathan, K. (2011). “Isolation and identification of total heterotrophic bacteria and human pathogens in water and sediment from Cuddalore fishing harbor after the tsunami”. Asian J. Biolol. Sci., 4: 148-156.
Mansour, A. M.; Nawar, A. H. and Madkour, H. A. (2011). “Metal pollution in marine sediments of selected harboursandindustrial areas along the Red Sea coast of Egypt”. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, Serie A 113, 225–244.
Moles A. and Norcross B. L. (1998).“Effects of oil-laden sediments on growth and health of juvenile flatfishes”. Canadian J. Fish Aquatic Sci. (55): 605-610.
Richards, L. A. (1954): “Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils”. USDA, Washington, USA, Handbook No. 60, 160 pp.
Rugh, C. L.; Susilawati, E.; Kravchenko, A. N. and Thomas, J.C., (2005). “Biodegradation metabolic expansion during polyaromatic hydrocarbons rhizoremediation”. Zeitschrijt-fur- Naturforschung-Seciotn-C-Biosciences. 60 (3/4): 331-339.
Said, W. M. and Ehsan, N. O. (2010). “Morphological and molecular evidences among four heteroforms of Avicennia marina (Forsk) Vierh.” J. Amer. Sci, 6(11), 843-856.
Shumo, M. I.; Taha, K. K.; Ahemad, A. Y.; Abd. Hamid, H. B. and Abdullah, M. P. (2014). “Digestion with HNO3/H2O2 mixture for determination of trace elements in sediment using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Journal of Applied and Industrial Sciences, 2 (2): 85-92.
Soltanpour, P. N. and Schwab, A. P. (1977). “A new soil test for simultaneous extraction of macro and micro-nutrients in alkaline soils”. Comm. Soil Sci. Plant Anal., 8, 195-207.
Waller, R. A. and Duncan, D. B. (1969). “A Bayes rule for the symmetric multiple comparisons problem”. J. Amer. Stat. Assoc., 64 (328), 1484-1503.
Zahran, M. A. (2002)."Phytogeography of the Red Sea littorals of Egypt and Saudi Arabia". Bull. Soc. Geogr. Egypte, 149-158.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
- All contributor(s) agree to transfer the copyright of this article to EPH Journal.
- EPH Journal will have all the rights to distribute, share, sell, modify this research article with proper reference of the contributors.
- EPH Journal will have the right to edit or completely remove the published article on any misconduct happening.