FLOOD DISASTER RISK RESPONSE OF URBAN HOUSEHOLDS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: CASE STUDY OF MAKURDI TOWN, NIGERIA
Flood is one of the natural disasters that is affecting urban households world over however, countries’ response to floods disaster risk vary in methods and magnitudes both at national or household levels. This study assesses flood disaster risk response of urban households in Makurdi town-Nigeria, with the aim of ascertaining their level of preparedness and responses before, during and after flood disaster events. Data was collected from 295 household heads of flood prone areas of the town using questionnaire and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The result of the study reveals that 83% of the respondents were aware of the annual flood occurrence in their area and, 56% had received prior information of the 2012 flood occurrence through different means however, only 35% of the respondents took the early warning information very seriously. The level of preparedness taken by the respondents before the flood shows that 25% constructed embankments/drainage around their houses, 23% relocated to safer places, 12% raised the foundation of their houses among others. The study also reveals that during the actual flood disaster events, 56% of the respondents struggled to evacuate household items only, 19% focused on evacuating their family members while 2% waited for the government to rescue them. The study shows that 39% of the flood victims took refuge at the houses of their family relations. Based on the findings, the study recommends for more sensitization of the public on flood disaster risk and greater involvement by NGOs andgovernment in disaster management in the study area.
Implications onFood Security in Benue State, Nigeria. Confluence Journal of Environmental Studies (CJES) Vol. 7 Pp 59-6.
BBC News. (2007). Million hit by floods in Africa, 17 September2007.
British Red Cross. (2008). Africa flood crisis 2007.http://www.redcross.org.uk/.
Egbinola,C.N; Olaniran, H.D; Amanambu, A.C. (2015). Flood management in cities of
developing countries: the example of Ibadan, Nigeria. Journal of Flood Risk Management • February 2015. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/273390422
Ezemonye, M.N; Emeribe, C.N. (2014). Flood and Household Preparedness in Benin City,
Nigeria. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, Vol. 5 (1) pp. 547-553.
Federal Ministry of Environment (FMEnv). (2005).National Erosion and Flood Control Policy,
Federal Ministry of Water Resources and Rural Development (FMWRRD). (1998).Managing
Flood Problems in Nigeria.
Howard, D.A. (1978). Geology in Environmental Planning, McGraw-Hill Book Company.
IFRC. (2007).World Disaster Report. Geneva. International Federation of Red Cross and Red
Cresent Societies.www.ifrg.org/publicat/wdr/2006. Retrieved on October 24, 2014.
IFRC. (2013). India/Nepal: Flash Floods. Information Bulletin, 20 June [Online] Available at:
International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR). (2002). Living with Risk: A Global
Review of Disaster Reduction Initiatives, Preliminary Version, Geneva: ISDR Secretariat, International.54.
Kolawole, O.M; Olayemi,A.B; Ajayi,K.T. (2011). Managing Flood in Nigerian Cities: Risk
Analysis and Adaptation Options – Ilorin City as a Case Study. Archives of Applied Science Research 3(1):17-24 www.scholarsresearchlibrary.com
Mngutyo, I.D; Ogwuche, J.A. (2013). Urban Development, Flood and Disaster Management:
Challenges of Contemporary Urban Planning Perspectives. International Journal of Innovative Environmental Studies Research, 1 (1): 1-6, www.seahipab.org
Noji, E.K; Lee, C. Y.(2005). Disaster Preparedness in Frumkin, H. (ed) Environmental
health:from Global to Local. Jossey-Bass press, San Francisco, CA.
Ologunorisa, T. E; T. Tersoo, (2006). The Changing Rainfall Pattern and its Implication for
Flood Frequency in Makurdi, Northern Nigeria, Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 10 (3), 26.
Oludare, H.A.; Bashir,O.O; Olusegun, H.A. (2012). Building Capabilities for Flood Disaster
and Hazard Preparedness and Risk Reduction in Nigeria: Need for Spatial Planning and Land Management, Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, Vol. 14 No. 1
Oriola, O. (2011). Strategies for Combating Urban Flooding in Developing Countries. The
Environment Vol 14, No.1
Tierney, K.T; Lindell,M.K; Perry, R.W. (2001). Facing Hazards and Disasters: Understanding
Human Dimensions. Joseph Henry Press
Tingsanchali, T. (2012). Urban flood disaster management Procedia Engineering 32 (2012) 25 –
37 Published by Elsevier Ltd
United Nations Office for the Coordination of HumanitarianAffairs. (2012). Overview: impact
of floods – West and CentralAfrica, 15 September 2012.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
- All contributor(s) agree to transfer the copyright of this article to EPH Journal.
- EPH Journal will have all the rights to distribute, share, sell, modify this research article with proper reference of the contributors.
- EPH Journal will have the right to edit or completely remove the published article on any misconduct happening.