Chronons, Time Atoms, and Quantized Time: Time Asymmetry Re-Visited

  • Dr. Sam Vaknin


A directional time does not feature in Newtonian mechanics, in electromagnetic theory, in quantum mechanics, in the equations which describe the world of elementary particles (with the exception of the kaon decay), and in some border astrophysical conditions, where there is time symmetry. Yet, we perceive the world of the macro as time asymmetric and our cosmology and thermodynamics explicitly incorporate a time arrow, albeit one which is superimposed on the equations and not derived from them. The introduction of stochastic processes has somewhat mitigated this conundrum.

Time is, therefore, an epiphenomenon: it does not characterize the parts – though it emerges as a main property of the whole, as an extensive parameter of macro systems.


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Online Bibliography
Read “Electro-gravity via geometric chrononfield” by Eytan H. Suchard (Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Volume 845, conference 1), presented at the 10th Biennial Conference on Classical and Quantum Relativistic Dynamics of Particles and Fields, 6–9 June 2016, Ljubljana, Slovenia (PDF version) (Updated ArXiv)
Read “Upper Time Limit, Its Gradient Curvature, and Matter” by Eytan H. Suchard (Journal of Modern Physics and Applications 2014, 2014:5)
Read “Absolute Maximum Proper Time to an Initial Event, the Curvature of Its Gradient along Conflict Strings and Matter” by Eytan H. Suchard (Journal of Modern Physics Vol.4 No.6 (2013), Article ID:33086)
Read the original paper “Upper Time Limit, Its Gradient Curvature, and Matter” by Eytan H. Suchard and a corrected, updated version (or HERE or HERE)
Read “Electro-gravitational Technology via Chronon Field” by Eytan H. Suchard (Physical Science International Journal, Vol. 4 Issue 8 (2014) – Abstract – Supplementary Files - DOI
Read “Electro-gravity via Geometric Chronon Field” by Eytan H. Suchard (Physical Science International Journal, Vol. 7 Issue 3 (2015) pp152-185 - Abstract
Chronons (Wikipedia) and HERE
Chronons (in Science Fiction)
Historical Bibliography of Chronons and Quantized Time
Chapter 2 – Introduction of a Quantum of Time (“chronon”), and its Consequences for the Electron in Quantum and Classical Physics - Ruy H.A. Farias, Erasmo Recami - doi:10.1016/S1076-5670(10)63002-9 - Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics - Volume 163, 2010, Pages 33–115 - Published by Elsevier
From time atoms to space-time quantization: the idea of discrete time, ca 1925–1936 - Helge Kragh, Bruno Carazza - doi:10.1016/0039-3681(94)90061-2 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A - Volume 25, Issue 3, June 1994, Pages 437–462 - Published by Elsevier
The chaotic universe - B.G. Sidharth - doi:10.1016/S0960-0779(98)00332-4 - Chaos, Solitons & Fractals - Volume 11, Issue 8, June 2000, Pages 1171–1174 - Published by Elsevier
Quantized space-time and time’s arrow - B.G. Sidharth - doi:10.1016/S0960-0779(98)00331-2 - Chaos, Solitons & Fractals - Volume 11, Issue 7, 1 June 2000, Pages 1045–1046 - Published by Elsevier
The quantum dimension of space-time - Enrique Alvarez, Juli Cespedes, Enric Verdaguer - doi:10.1016/0960-0779(94)90054-X - - Chaos, Solitons & Fractals - Volume 4, Issue 3, March 1994, Pages 411–414 - Published by Elsevier
Discrete time from quantum physics - A.P. Balachandran, L. Chandar - doi:10.1016/0550-3213(94)90207-0 - Nuclear Physics B - Volume 428, Issues 1–2, 10 October 1994, Pages 435-448 - Published by Elsevier
Quantization of time: an implication of strictly-irreversible evolution of dynamically isolated quantum systems - Sidney Golden - doi:10.1016/0378-4371(94)90534-7 - Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications - Volume 208, Issue 1, 1 July 1994, Pages 65-90 - Published by Elsevier
Radiation: Waves or particles? A quantized approach to time - Arthur Charlesby - doi:10.1016/0969-806X(93)90416-R - Radiation Physics and Chemistry - Volume 42, Issues 4–6, October–December 1993, Pages 977–984 - Published by Elsevier -
Waves and particles—quantisation of the interval between eventss0 - Arthur Charlesby - doi:10.1016/0969-806X(94)00085-9 - Radiation Physics and Chemistry - Volume 45, Issue 2, February 1995, Pages 175–186 - Published by Elsevier
The Snyder space-time quantization, q-deformations, and ultraviolet divergences - R.M. Mir-Kasimov - doi:10.1016/0370-2693(96)00408-X - Physics Letters B - Volume 378, Issues 1–4, 20 June 1996, Pages 181–186 - Published by Elsevier
Chronon Corrections to the Dirac Equations - Andrei A. Galiautdinov and David R. Finkelstein - ArXiv, June 17, 2018
Other Bibliography

Lévi, Robert (1927) - Théorie de l'action universelle et discontinue - Journal de Physique et le Radium 8 (4): 182–198
Margenau, Henry - The Nature of Physical Reality - McGraw-Hill, 1950
Yang, C. N. - On quantized space-time - Physical Review 72 (9): 874
Caldirola, P. - The introduction of the chronon in the electron theory and a charged lepton mass formula - Lett. Nuovo Cim. 27 (8): 225–228
Albanese, Claudio; Lawi, Stephan - Time Quantization and q-deformations - Journal of Physics A. 37 (8): 2983–2987
Hsu, Kenneth J. - In search of a Physical Theory of Time - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America - 01 November 1992, Vol.89(21), pp.10222-10226
Hsu, Kenneth J. - Are Chronons the Elementary Particles in space and Time? - Terrestrial, Atmospheric, and Oceanic Sciences
How to Cite
Vaknin, D. S. (2018). Chronons, Time Atoms, and Quantized Time: Time Asymmetry Re-Visited. EPH - International Journal of Applied Science (ISSN: 2208-2182), 4(9), 06-11. Retrieved from