ROLE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN REDUCING POLLUTION
Looking at the Nano scale has stimulated the development and use of novel and costeffective
technologies for remediation, pollution detection, catalysis and others.
Nanotechnology is defined as the creation of functional materials, devices and systems
through control of matter on the nanometer (1-100 nm) length scale and the exploitation of
novel properties and phenomena developed at that scale. Environmental nanotechnology is
considered to play a key role in the shaping of current environmental engineering and
science. Nanotechnology is an upcoming technology that can provide solution for combating
pollution by controlling shape and size of materials at the Nano scale. This review provides
comprehensive information regarding the role of nanotechnology in pollution control at
three different steps viz. Source reduction or pollution prevention, remediation or
degradation of pollutants and sensing of pollutants. Due to its large surface area and high
surface energy, the nanoparticles have the ability to absorb large amount of pollutants or
catalyze reactions at a much faster rate, thus reducing energy consumption during
degradation or helps in preventing release of contaminants. Pollution prevention by
nanotechnology refers on the one hand to a reduction in the use of raw materials, water or
other resources and the elimination or reduction of waste and on the other hand to more
efficient use of energy or involvement in energy production. The Nano size of the particles
also make it possible to reach otherwise inaccessible areas and hence promote in-situ
remediation rather than ex-situ remediation. The ability of the nanoparticles to be coated
with various ligands and control of surface area to volume ratio by changing the shape of
the nanoparticle Nanotechnology and the environment – is it therefore a Janus-faced
relationship. There is the huge hope that Nano technological applications and products
will lead to a cleaner and healthier environmentrticles enables the design of sensors with
high selectivity, sensitivity and specificity
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