EPH - International Journal of Biological & Pharmaceutical Science (ISSN: 2208-2166) https://ephjournal.com/index.php/bps <p><strong><span id="cell-3-name" class="gridCellContainer"><span class="label">EPH - International Journal of Biological &amp; Pharmaceutical Science (ISSN: 2208-2166) </span></span></strong> publishes a wide range of high quality research articles in the field (but not limited to) given below: biological sciences. Scope of the journal includes: Cell biology, developmental biology, structural biology, microbiology, molecular biology &amp; genetics, biochemistry, biotechnology, biodiversity, entomology, toxicology, ecology, freshwater biology, marine biology etc. <br><span style="font-size: 1.5em;"><strong> <span style="text-shadow: #ff6600 0px 0px 3px;">Current Impact Factor: 2.448</span></strong></span></p> Engineer's Publication House en-US EPH - International Journal of Biological & Pharmaceutical Science (ISSN: 2208-2166) 2208-2166 <ul> <li>All contributor(s) agree to transfer the copyright of this article to <strong>EPH Journal.</strong></li> <li><strong>EPH Journal</strong> will have all the rights to distribute, share, sell, modify this research article with proper reference of the contributors.&nbsp;</li> <li><strong>EPH Journal</strong> will have the right to edit or completely remove the published article on any misconduct happening.</li> </ul> Evaluation of the Microbial Toxicities of 4,5-Dichloroimidazole and its Mn(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II) Complexes https://ephjournal.com/index.php/bps/article/view/559 <p><em>4,5-Dichloroimidazole (4,5-DCI) was synthesized, recrystallized from water and characterized using spectroscopic methods. It was screened for its antimicrobial activities against five bacterial strains namely: Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus strain CF7, Bacillus thuringensis strain EB151, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain 335K55, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PG1. These microorganisms were very sensitive to the compound. Their sensitivities were increased appreciably by the Ni<sup>2+</sup> and Mn<sup>2+</sup> complexes of 4,5-dichloroimidazole and reduced by its Zn<sup>2+</sup> complex. The sensitivities of these microorganisms towards these compounds were higher than their sensitivities towards Levofloxacin – a reference antibacterial.</em></p> Damian Osahon Emwanta Ngochindo, R. I. Odokuma, L. O. Eruteya, C. O ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-03-31 2018-03-31 4 3 01 06 Syntheses And Antimicrobial Evaluation Of Brominated Imidazole And Its Co(II), Cu(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II) Complexes https://ephjournal.com/index.php/bps/article/view/560 <p><em>2,4,5-Tribromoimidazole (TBI) was synthesized and its structure was elucidated using spectroscopic methods. Its Co(II), Cu(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), and Zn(II) complexes were synthesized and their antimicrobial activities were evaluated against Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus strain CF7, Bacillus thuringensis strain EB151, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain 335K55, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PG1, and Candida albicans. These compounds were all inactive to both strains of Pseudomonas spp. Antimicrobial activities of these compounds is found to be in the order TBI &gt; Cu[TBI] &gt; Cr[TBI] &gt; Ni[TBI] &gt; Mn[TBI] &gt; Zn[TBI] &gt; Co[TBI]. The activity of TBI was reduced upon complexation by all the metal ions used.</em></p> Damian Osahon Emwanta Ngochindo, R. I. Odokuma, L. O. Eruteya, O. C ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-03-31 2018-03-31 4 3 07 13 SYNTHESES AND EVALUATION OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF HALOGENATED IMIDAZOLES AND THEIR Mn(II), Ni(II), AND Zn(II) COMPLEXES https://ephjournal.com/index.php/bps/article/view/565 <p><em>4,5-Dichloroimidazole (4,5-DCI)and 2,4,5-Tribromoimidazole were synthesized, recrystallized from the appropriate solvents and characterized using spectroscopic methods. They were screened for their antimicrobial activities against five bacterial strains namely: Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus strain CF7, Bacillus thuringensis strain EB151, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain 335K55, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PG1. These microorganisms were very sensitive to the compounds. Their sensitivities were increased appreciably by the Ni<sup>2+</sup> and Mn<sup>2+</sup> complexes of 4,5-dichloroimidazole and reduced by its Zn<sup>2+</sup> complex. Their sensitivities towards 2,4,5-tribromoimdazole were either greatly reduced or totally lost upon complexation. The differences in these sensitivities are attributed majorly to the halogens as the metal ions are common to both ligands.</em></p> Damian Osahon Emwanta Ngochindo, R. I. Odokuma, L. O. Eruteya, C. O ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-03-31 2018-03-31 4 3 14 20 Preliminary assessment of biodiversity/ecosystems vulnerability by climate change and suggestion a system of mitigation measures for them, case study: Hanoi city, Vietnam https://ephjournal.com/index.php/bps/article/view/589 <p>In the paper, the authors applied the following items in order to assess the vulnerability of ecosystems / biodiversity of Hanoi city caused by climate change and to suggest a system of mitigation measures for them:</p> <ul> <li>The concepts on vulnerability, resilience, exposure, sensitivity, adaptation, mitigation according to guidelines of IPCC (2007).</li> <li>The impacts of climate change on ecosystems/biodiversity according to the results of researches of CBD experts (2009).</li> <li>Analysis the impacts of the factors of climate change on ecosystems/biodiversity according to the principles of ecological sciences.</li> <li>The characteristics of all 13 main ecosystems/biodiversity of Hanoi city are research results of the authors and our colleagues.</li> </ul> <p>Preliminary assessment of ecosystems/biodiversity vulnerability by climate change of the 13 above main ecosystems/biodiversity of Hanoi city are:</p> <ul> <li>- Group of ecosystems/biodiversity with high vulnerability: urban ecosystems, rural ecosystems, agricultural ecosystems, grassland ecosystems, land ecosystems yards outside the dyke.</li> <li>- Group of ecosystems/biodiversity with middle vulnerability: nature lake ecosystems, dam ecosystems, wetland ecosystems, stream ecosystems, big river ecosystems.</li> <li>- Group of ecosystems/biodiversity with low vulnerability: cave ecosystems, forest ecosystems.</li> </ul> <p>A system of 7 mitigation measures must be applied, such as: to increase the sustainability of biodiversity/ecosystems, to reduce current pressure on biodiversity/ecosystems, to enhance community awareness, to actively implement REDD program.</p> Doan Huong Mai Mai Dinh Yen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-03-31 2018-03-31 4 3 21 26