Performance Management And Employee Productivity In Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University

  • Prof. B.O.G Nwanolue Department of Political Science, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University
  • Dr. C.A. Obiora Department of Political Science, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University
  • Ifeoma Ethel Ezeabasili Department of Political Science, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University
Keywords: Performance Management, Performance Appraisal, Feedback, Reward System, Employee Productivity


Employees are the life wire of any organization and as such when effectively managed can contribute to productivity. The way and manner the issue of performance appraisal, reward and Feedback are treated goes a long way to determine the level of employee’s output in the organization. This study examined performance management and employee productivity in Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University. The study employed descriptive survey design method while Vrooms Valence Expectancy theory was adopted as the theoretical framework of analysis, Pearson’s product moment correlation was the analytical tool used . The major findings of the study were that performance appraisal had moderate positive relationship with productivity in Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University. It was also revealed that the reward system has a high significant positive correlation with employee productivity in the institution. The study also found out that feedback has a highly significant positive correlation with employee productivity in the university. The study concluded that effective and efficient performance management through appraisals and good reward system and feedback mechanism will lead to high employee productivity which will eventually lead to the attainment of organizational goals. Based on the foregoing, the study recommended that the university and other tertiary institutions should pay greater attention to the type of performance appraisal system used in evaluating their staff both Academic and Non-academic.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Dr. C.A. Obiora, Department of Political Science, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University

Department of political science

Ifeoma Ethel Ezeabasili, Department of Political Science, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University

Department of Political Science: Lecturer 1



Agba,A.M . (2010). Teachers' Perception on their Job performance. Unpublished Postgraduate Thesis on Education of the University of Calabar. Arusha Lutheran Medical Centre annual report (ALMC) (2010) 24pp. Available at [ rt.pdf] accessed on 23rd October 2015
Adeyanju, H. & Odunlami, I. (2009). Performance and Potential Appraisal. In Akinsanya, O.,Peleyeju, J., & Ajayi,K. (eds.) Personnel Administration. Ibadan :Bethel Prints.

Afolabi, A. (2001). Essentials of Educational Management, Administration, Planning and Supervision . Abeokuta: Vantage Publishers.

Akinsolu, A. (2010). Managing Higher Education System for Higher Productivity: The need for Total Quality Management. Education Periscope, 3:1-9.

Ajayi, I.A., Awolusi, O.O., Arogundade, B.B &Ekundayo, H.Y. (2011). Work Environment as Correlate of Academic Staff Job Performance in South-West Nigerian Universities. European Journal of Educational Studies, 3(1).

Akeke, N. I; Akeke, A.R &Awolusi, O. D (2015).The Effect of Job Satisfaction on Organization Commitment among Non-Academic Staff of Tertiary Institutions in Ekiti State. International Journal of Interdisciplinary Research Methods 2(1); 25-39.
Armstrong M. & Baron, A. (1998); Performance Management: The New Realities. London: IPD
Aswathapa K (2005). Human Resource Personnel Management. 4th Edition', New Delhi India: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited
Atif, J (2010). Employee Retention Relationship to Training and Development: A Compensation Perspective. African Journal of Business Management 5(7): 2679-2685.
Bloom, W., Dorgan, F., Dowdy, V. & van Reenen, M. (2007). Improving Employee Performance Through Appraisal and Coaching (2nd ed.). New York, NY: American Management Association.
Broady-Preston, C. & Steel, M. (2012). Can Performance Appraisals Motivate Employees /7 to Improve Performance? A Mexican study. The International Journal of Human Resource Management 1 (22), 1-22. DOI:10.lOSO/09585l92.201 1.637069
Brown, M., & Benson, J. (2013). Rated to Exhaustion? Reactions to Performance Appraisal Processes. Industrial Relations Journal 34(1), 67-81.
Carroll, S J. &Schneier, C. E. (2002). Performance Appraisal and Review Systems: The Identification, Measurement and Development of Performance in Organizations. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.
Caruth, C. & Humphreys, D. (2008). Perfect Phrases Jar Performance Reviews: Hundreds of Ready-to-use Phrases that describe your Employees Performance (from unacceptable to outstanding). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Cascio, WE. &B. Bailey, (1995). International FIRM: The State of Research and Practice. In: Shenkar, O., (Ed.)/ Global Perspectives of Human Resource Management. Englewood Cliffs, Prentice-I-Tall, NJ, pp: 15-36.
Chen, Y. (2009). Self-determination in Human Behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology 74(2), 580-590.
Cole, G.A. (1997). Personnel Management. Theory and Practice: London: Letts Educational.
Cook, J., & Crossman, A. (2004). Satisfaction with Performance Appraisal Systems. Journal of Managerial Psychology. 19(5): p. 526-54 1
Cook, S. & Crossman, M. (2014). Performance Appraisal Reactions: Measurement, Modeling and Method bBas. Journal of Applied Psychology 85(5), 708-723.
Davis, T. &Landa. M. (2009). A Contrary Look at performance Appraisal. Canadian Manager/Manager Canadian 3 (2), 18-28.
De Silva, S. (2008). Performance-Related and Skill-Based Pay: An Introduction. International Labour Office. Geneva: Switzerland.
Decenzo, D. A. & Robbins, S. P. (2007). Personnel/Human Resource Management. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India Private Limited.

Denisi, G (2006) The Social Context of Performance Appraisal: A Review and Framework. New York, NY: Longman Publishers .
Derven M. (2010). The Paradox of Performance Appraisal. Personnel Journal 69 (2), 12-17.
Dewhurst, K., Hersey, C. & Blanchard, V. (2010). Effectiveness of Performance Appraisal: Its Outcomes and Detriments in Pakistani Organizations. European Journal of Social Sciences 10(3), 479-485.
Dzinkowski, R. (2010). The Value of Intellectual capital. The Journal of Business Strategy 21(4), 3-4.
Ejiofor, P.N.O (1984). How can we motivate Nigerian Worker? In Aniagoh, V.A (eds): Managing the Nigerian Worker. Ikeja: Longman Nigerian Limited.
Eleine, F., Hailey, H.H. & Kelliher, C. (2010). High Commitment Performance Management: The Roles of Justice and Trust. Personnel Review, 40(1): 5 – 23.

Emesowum, U. F. (2011). ‘’The Impact of Performance Evaluation on Workers Productivity in Public Companies: A study of PHCN in Anambra state’’. An unpublished Msc Thesis, Department of Political Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka.

Engle, A., M. Festing &P. Dowling, (2008). State of Origin: Research in Global Performance Management, a Proposed Research Domain and Emerging Implications. European Journal of International Management, 2(2).
Erdogan, B. (2012). ‘‘Antecedents and Consequences of Justice Perceptions in Performance Appraisals’’. Human Resource Management Review 12 4), 555-578.
Ejeh, E. I., & Okoro, P. (2016): Evaluation of Staff Personal Administration in Tertiary Institutions in South Eastern Nigeria from 2007 to 2012 Greener Journal of Educational Research vol. 6 (6). Pp. 213-222.

Enistein, W., & Le Mere-Labonte, J. (1989). Performance Appraisal: Dilemma or Desire? Advanced Management Journal, 54(2), 26-30.

Fletcher, C. (2011). Performance Appraisal: How to Improve its Effectiveness. A Masters Thesis Submitted to the University of Twente, Enschede.
Folorunso OO (2014). Exploring the Effect of Organizational Commitment, Dimension on Employee Performance: An Empirical Evidence from Academic Staff of Oyo State Owned Tertiary institutions; Ibadan: The Nigerian Polytechnic for Human Resource Management (SHRM) journal. Page 6. Accessed on March, 6 2018.
Gichuhi, A.W., Abaja, P.O., &Ochieng, I. (2014). Effect of Performance Appraisal On Employee Productivity: A Case Study of Supermarkets in Nakuru Town, Kenya. Asian Journal of Business and Management Sciences 2 (1)42-5 8.
Global Workforce Report (2012). Engagement at risk: During Strong Performance in a volatile global environment, New York: Towers Warson Publishers.

Gundecha, M (2012). Factors Affecting Labour Productivity a Building Construction Project in the U.S.A Welp Survey: U.S.A: North Dalcota State University.

Gupta, C. &Upadhyay, V. (2012). The Impact of Human Resource Practices on Business unit Operating and Financial Performance. Human Resource Management Journal 13(2), 21-36.
Hall, M. (2002). Aligning the Organization to Increase Performance Results; The Public Manager Vol. 31(2).

Hall, W., Postner, G. &Hardner, B. (2009). The Practice of Management. New York, NY: Harper & Row Publishers, Inc.
Harper S. & Vilkinas, T. (2005). Determining the Impact of an Organization’s Performance Management System. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 43(1).

Hasni, O.N. & Nura, A.A. (2014). The Relationship between Separation and Performance Management System of Academics in Nigerian Universities: The Mediating Effect of e-HRM. Journal of Scientific Research and reports, 3(7): 894 – 904.

Haunstein, N.M.A. (1992).AN Information Processing Approach to Leniency. Journal of Applied Psychology. 77, 485 – 493.
Hayford, C; Boakye, Y &Ovusu, N.O (2016). “Is Performance Appraisal System Anachronistic in Tertiary Institutions in Ghana? Evidence from the University of Cape Coast. Journal of Business and Management, 18(4); 55-62.
Homayounizadpanah, V. &Baqerrkord, G. (2012). Sorting and Incentive Effects of Pay-for-Performance: Summary of an experimental study. Academy of Management Journal 50 (6), 3 87-405.
Igbokwe, P. A & Ugo –Okoro, C. P (2015) Performance Evaluation of Academic Staff in Universities and College in Nigeria: The Missing Criteria. International Journal of Education and Research. Vol.3(3):627-640 retrieve from on 20th February 2018 at 2:pm

Jackson, S. &Schuller, R. (2012). Managing Human Resources through Strategic Partnership (8th ed.). Toronto, Canada: Thompson.
Kanfer, B. (2010). A Benchmarking Study of Experiences with Electronic Government. An International Journal of Benchmarking 14 (2), 172-1 85.
Kumar R (2005). Research Methodology: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners (Second Edition). London: SAGE Publications.
Lee, H. (2005). Training Management in South Africa (2nded). Cape Town, SA: Oxford University Press.
Macey, W. H., Schneider, B., Barbera, K. M., & Young, S. A. (2009). Employee Engagement: Tools for Analysis, Practice, and Competitive Advantage. Maiden, WA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Mackey, K., Johnson, G. (2000). The Strategic Management of Human Resources in New Zealand. Auckland: Irwin/McGraw Hill.
Malcolm, M. & Jackson, T. (2002). Personnel Practice (3rded). Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development. Manager/Manager Canadian 3 (2), 18-28.
Maroney, B. & Buckley, M. (2012). Does Research in Performance Appraisal Influence the Practice of performance appraisal? Public Personnel Management 21 (2), 5-1 0.
Marsor, R. (2011). Influence of Prior Acquaintance with the rate on rater Accuracy and halo. The Journal of Management Development 26 (8), 790
Mello, J. A (2015). Strategic Human Resources Management 4th Ed, U.S.A: CT
Mgbemena, G.C; Mbah, S.I &Ejike, D.C (2015). Impact of Effective Performance Management on Organizational Productivity: A Study of Anambra State Civil Service System, Nigeria. The International Journal of Business and Management.
Mohammed, A.M &Abdulahi, Y.B (2011). An Evaluation of Staff Motivation, Dissatisfaction and Job Performance in an Academic setting. Australian Journal of Business and Management Research 1(9), 1-13.
Mollel-Eliphaz, R; Mulongo, L.S &Razia, M (2017). The Influence of Performance Appraisal Practices on Employee Productivity: A Case of Muheza District, Tanzania. Issues in Business Management and Economics, 5(4), 45-59.
Mone, F. M., & London, M. (2010). Employee Engagement through Effective Performance Management: A Practical Guide for Managers. New York, NY: Routledge
Monga, M.L (1989). Management of Performance Appraisal. Bombay: Himalaya Publishing House
Moorhead, V. & Griffin, C. (2012). Innovative Management Model for Performance Appraisal: the case of the Palestinian Public Universities. Management Research News 27(2), 56-73.
Moulder, E. (2011). Performance Appraisals for Local Government Employees: Programs and Practices. Washington: D.C
Mullins, L. (2009). Management and Organizational Behaviour (5thed.). New Jersey, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Naser, S (2007). Exploring Organizational Commitment and Leadership Frames within Indian and Iranian Higher Education Institutions. Bulletin of Education and Research. 29(1):17 – 32.
Neely, A., J. Mills, K. Platts, H. Richard & M. Bourne, (2000). Performance Measurement System Design: Developing and Testing a Process-based Approach. International. Journal of Operations and Production Management., 20(10): 1119-1145.
Negin, M Omid, M. Ahmad BM (2013). The Impact of Organizational Commitment on Employee’s Job Performance: A study of Meli Bank; International J. Contemporary Res. Bus. 5(5): 164-171.
Obiora, C.A. (2002). Employee Performance Management in Tertiary Institutions. A Case Study of NnamdiAzikiwe University, Awka. An Unpublished M.Sc Thesis Submitted to Department of Political Science Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka.
Odihiambo, E.O. (2015). The Effect of Performance Management Practices on Employee Productivity: A Case Study of Schindler Limited: Unpublished Research Report on Executive Master of Science in Organizational Development (EMOD) School of Business United States International University Africa.
Okafor, T. (2005). Performance Appraisal a Chore or Cute-A Review of Public Sector Approach in Nigerian Universities, Conference on Trends in the Management of Human resources in Higher education. 25-26 August at OCED Headquarters, Peris.
Omusebe J.S ., Kimanichege, G.& Musiega D. ( 2013 ) Effects Of Performance Appraisal On Employee Productivity. A Case Study Of Mumias Sugar Company Limited International Journal Of Innovative Research & Development Vol 2 ( 9):5

Onyeizuigbo, C.U(2013) Practical Approach to Research Methodology(2nd edition).Onitsha: Success Publisher.

Onyije, O.C. (2015), Effect of Performance Appraisal Employee Productivity in Nigerian University. Journal of Economics and Business Research. 21(4): 65 – 81.
Owoyemi, O, & George, O. (2013). The use of Performance Appraisal system in Enhancing Employee’s Performance in a Public Sector Agency in Nigeria. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences vol. 3, No. 10. pp. 240-249.

Pallant, J (2011). A Step by Step Guide to Data Analysis using the SPSS Programme Software Manual, 4th Edition. Crows nest: Alleri and Unwin.
Peleyeju J. O & Ojebiyi, O. A (2013) Performance Appraisal and Total Quality Management of Public Universities in South Western Nigerian. British Journal of Education vol. No. 2 pp. 41-47

Petermode, V. F. (1991). Educational Administration: Applied Concepts and Theoretical Perspectives for Students and Practitioners. Lagos: Jaja Educational Research and Publishers Ltd.

Raju, B. & Collins, Y. (2008). Performance Appraisal Decision in Malaysian Public Service. International Journal of Public Sector Management 17 (1), 48-64.
Ramzan, M; Chazanber, H, Sajjaid, A (2013). Impact of Motivation on Employee Turnover in Telecom Sector in Pakistan. Journal of Business Studies Quality 5(1); 76-92.
Randell, F. (2014). Issues and Challenges in the Practice of Performance Appraisal Activities in the 21st Century. International Journal of Education and Research 1(4), 1-8.
Rao, T.V (2005). Performance Management and Appraisal Systems. New Delhi: Response Books.
Salau, O.P., Oludayo, F.O. &Omoniyi, 0. C. (2014). Modeling the Relationship Between Performance Appraisal and Organizational Productivity in Nigerian Public Sector. Economic Management Innovation Journal 6(2), 2-16
Schraeder, M. Becton. J., & Portis, R. (2007). A Critical Examination of Performance Appraisals. The Journal for Quality and Participation 210), 20-25.
Schuler, R. S. & Jackson, S. E. (2005). The Growth in Importance on International Perspective Management Review. A Quarter-Century Review of Human Resource Management in the US 16: 11-35.
Sekaran U. (2003). Research Methods for Business (4th ed.). Hoboken, New Jew: John Wiley & Sons.
Sinclair, R; Wright, C & Cullen, J (2008). Performance Differences for Organizational Commitment Profiles. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(6); 1280-1287
Solmon, D. & Podgursky, C. (2010). Employee Performance Appraisal Practices of World Vision: Ghana Rural Water Project (GRWP). A Thesis Submitted to the University of Cape Coast.
Vanguard (2011, January 18). Anambra Varsity ASUU calls off strike. Accessed online from
Vroom, V.H. (1964). Work and Motivation. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Wurim, B. P. (2012). Talent Management and Employee Productivity in Public Sectors Organizations of Nigeria. Journal of Management and Corporate Governance, 4 (3): 129 – 134
How to Cite
Nwanolue, P. B., Obiora, D. C., & Ezeabasili, I. E. (2018). Performance Management And Employee Productivity In Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University. EPH - International Journal of Humanities and Social Science (ISSN: 2208-2174), 3(11), 23-43. Retrieved from